Selasa, 10 November 2015
Understanding the Scientific Method
Understanding the Scientific Method
Schaum outline in the book explained that understanding the scientific method or scientific method is a step by step routine work of scientists active scientists as dibimbingnya their curiosity to learn regularity and the relationship between the phenomenon of the phenomena they study.
Application of a healthy memikiran rigorous research and data analysis is also an understanding of the scientific method or scientific method.
In a renewed understanding of the scientific method, developed by Francis Bacon (1561-1626) that the definition of the scientific method is a series of steps such as identifying the problem, gathering data within the scope of existing problems, sorting the data to look for relationships, formulate a scientific hypothesis or conjecture temporary, accurately test hypotheses and confirm hypotheses / scientific conjecture if there are findings of new findings in the experiments conducted. The scientific steps carried out in a systematic and sequential.
Described in wikipedia, understanding the scientific method or scientific process (scientific method) is a scientific process to acquire the knowledge systematically based on physical evidence. Scientis or researchers / scientists are carrying out observation and forming a hypothesis in his efforts so as to explain natural phenomena. Prediction or hypothesis is based on the hypothesis was tested by conducting experiments. If passed the test of the hypothesis through experiments many times either by the researcher or by other researchers, the hypothesis could be a scientific theory. Scientists or researchers may be interested in a different aspect of nature, but they all use a similar approach to direct intellectual inquiry investigation that is the scientific method.
From other sources explained that the understanding of the scientific method or scientific method is a way to find and reveal the truth with objectivity characteristic. Here the truth acquired a conceptual or deductive alone is not enough; must be tested empirically.
Finally, understanding the scientific method according to outside sources that the scientific method is the process by which scientists, collectively and from time to time, trying to build a representation of the world or the answer to the phenomenon of the phenomenon that is accurately (reliable, consistent and very objective). The scientific method is the process by roomates scientists, Collectively and over time, endeavor to construct an accurate (that is, reliable, consistent and non-arbitrary) representation of the world.
Steps Scientific Method
The first step that must be done by researchers is to formulate a problem that can be resolved. This is the first step of the scientific method. The answer from the problem formulation generally includes explanations relating to the order or process in nature. Many researchers are more interested in the mechanism of action of nature than the questions about the final destination.
Once a question is asked in the form of formulation of the problem, the next step scientific method is to find the answers by gathering data relevant to the issue. Step scientific method is crucial to further scientific method. Such data can be obtained from observations, measurements, calculations, and a review of the data the old data or records, sorted / sorted with the full awareness that found order and connection of what we formulate.
The next step scientific method is the submission of scientific conjecture or guess the term is called scientific and more popular with the word "hypothesis". With the hypothesis, a study will be in a conceptual framework. The hypothesis will be the framework in which scientific understanding be structured. In general, the hypothesis is a generalization that describes the state of the old circumstances within the scope of the investigation. The formulation of hypotheses that are characteristic of successful scientific creative imagination. In the scientific method, make a hypothesis using inductive logic. In other words, make a hypothesis that by taking certain things that are special, specific and then make it a common thing which will then be tested in the experiment. Therefore, the scientific method is often called by the method of induction.
It should be remembered that scientists rarely follow the steps which have been described previously rigidly. The hypothesis may precede the actual accumulation of data, the data ata could have accumulated and analyzed in conjunction with the development of hypotheses rather than doing it all in order. In addition, although the researchers creative and also very curious about their thinking processes, curiosity can be constrained by the views of earlier views that have been received. Therefore, changes in the existing theories are rare.
Example Steps of the scientific method
To identify the problem
Collecting data within the scope of the problem
Disaggregate data to find correlations, meaningful relationships and regularities
Formulate hypotheses (a generalization) which is an educated guess that explains the data of existing data and suggests next steps that should be taken to further studies
As precisely as possible to test the hypothesis by collecting data of new data
Confirm, modify or reject the hypothesis if obtain discovery of new findings.
For those of you who are still learning, following the steps of the scientific method is commonly used in laboratories and experiments
Steps Scientific Method
Formulate the problem: The first step in conducting a study is to formulate a problem. It aims to clarify the problem to be solved. The formulation of the problem is done by asking a series of questions relating to the cases
Planning research: steps in making a design of the study was to develop research purposes, draw up hypotheses, set variables, selecting tools and materials to be used, determine the pace of work, determines the sample population and to determine how to capture data and analyze the data.
Conducting research: The study began with the observation activities. Observations can be made directly (qualitative observation) and indirect observation (observation quantitative). To test the hypothesis that has been made, we need to do research through experiments in accordance with the experimental design were developed previously. Practice using experimental equipment is an effective way of learning that work to reduce errors.
Deducing research: After processing and analyzing the data, then performed conclusion. The conclusion should be based on the results of research and remains guided by the objective view.
Doing research improvement: A study will be be scientifically valid if such research may well be retested by other researchers. Therefore, the whole theory that there certainly are many researchers who become contributors.
Writing scientific reports: A scientific research can be valuable if the research results published for the results obtained in these studies may be known to others. Outline or an outline of a scientific report drawn up sequentially from the title, preface, table of contents, introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion, references, and appendices.